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Surname List
Name Index

Frederick Ernest CARTER18,43,57,137,138,146,147 was born on 29 Jan 1871 in England. In 1906 he was a miner in Kamloops, B.C.1 Carter was a member of Pearse and Fernie's posse. Pearse in particular found Carter of value. Carter is in Mary Spencer's posse photograph.

Voter's List for B.C., 1898
Carter, Frederick Ernest, Kamloops, Miner, YN

In the 1901 Census, Carter is noted as immigrating from England in 1888, resident in Cherry Creek, SW of Kamloops and at that time he was employed as a miner.

Const. Pearse's report to Sup't Hussey states that Carter left Kamloops with Pearse on the afternoon of the 9th and was valuable in assisting to determine the tracks on Campbell's Range and remained with the party until its return to Kamloops eight days later.

On the 19th of May, we find Carter on the job again. He accompanies the investigator "LC", (Thiel Detective Calhoun?) with driver Richard Blair and C.P.R. Special service Detective W. F. Foy to investigate the robber's camps numbers 1 and 2, as well as a cursory look at Dalton's cabin.

In Deputy Attorney General McLean's closing argument notes, he states that Carter "brought in bay on 19th", referring to one of the bandit's horses. McLean goes on to state that Carter first saw the horse on Friday 11th. He also notes that Exhibits 2 and 3 were found in a camp, and that Exhibit 1, the walnut bag, was found in the cache, 1 1/2 miles further on from the camp.

In a letter from B.C. Provincial Police Chief Constable Fernie to Inspector Hussey dated 20 Sep 1906, Fernie refers to a "guard Carter". It is not known whether this refers to F.E. Carter, and has to be determined. Did F.E. Carter work as a prison guard? This "guard Carter" had apparently gained the confidences of both Miner and Dunn, and had several long conversations with them. Carter reported his conversations with Miner about switching overcoats before the robbery, and that the overcoat entered as an exhibit at the trial was not the one he wore "on his prospecting trip northward." Miner also confided this information to warden Vicars, but not in such detail. Miner was an old hand in dealing with trials and appeals, and was not beyond letting information slip out that could weigh on his ability to obtain a re-trial.

Chief Constable Pearse in Kamloops sent a telegram to Hussey in Victoria at 4:20 pm, 12 June, 1906. Pearse included Carter in a list of potential reward recipients that contributed most to the successful capture of the Ducks robbers.

RL CAWSTON142 relates a story about Miner and Budd while he was riding along side them. He was a friend to Jack Budd.

Okanagan Historical Society #48, VB Cawston, p72, 73
"R.L. Cawston of the "R" ranch knew Jack Budd. One time, out of curiosity, he asked him, 'What kind of a fellow was that Bill Miner?' Budd's answer gave "RL" more than he asked for. 'He was a gentleman, and if the kid had kept the horses where he was supposed to, Bill would have got away."

Between 1904 and 1906 A C CHADSEY43,148 was a barber and owner of the Elite barbershop in Chilliwack, B.C. He provided a witness statement about the Mission robbery in May 1906. There are a number of Chadseys in the Chilliwak area on the B.C. 1898 Voter's List.

Chadsey, Chester, Sumas, Farmer, WChi
Chadsey, David Wm., Sumas, Farmer, WChi
Chadsey, George Washington, Sumas, Farmer, WChi
Chadsey, James Lonson, Chilliwak, Farmer, WChi
Chadsey, Louis L., Sumas, Farmer, WChi
Chadsey, William, Sumas, Farmer, WChi
Chadsey, William Harvey, Chilliwak, Farmer, WChi
The chances are that the detectives spelling of the surname "Chasdsey" is in error.

Chadsey ran the Elite barber Shop in Chilliwak.
On 23 May 1906, the Thiel detective interviewed Mr Chadsey. Chadsey recognized the photo of Edwards (Miner) and said that he had shaved the old man many times while he was in Chilliwak.

In the 14 Sept 1904 issue of the Chilliwak Progress in the section on local businesses, Al Chadsey has an advertisement for his barbershop, the Elite. He is described as an agent for the "New Method Laundry", and his shop has facial massages as a specialty.

Inspector RG CHAMBERLIN149,150 was living in 1904 in Ottawa, ON. He was with the Dominion Police and was visiting Vancouver at the time of the Mission robbery and assisted in the investigation.

Chamberlain interviewed the train crew after the Mission robbery.
He assisted B.C. Provincial Police Chief Constable Campbell in the search for the robbers.

Surname spelling is both "ain" and "in".

Outlaw John T. CHAPMAN149 provided the role model to Miner and Leroy on how to rob trains.

F.W. Anderson
Miner followed Chapman's modus operandi for holding up a train - cutting the engine, tender and express cars off from the main train, and the use of dynamite. Chapman started robbing trains in 1870, long before Miner came upon the scene.


1904 Henderson's Directory:
Cherry Creek
A station on the mainline of the C.P.R. 236 miles east of Vancouver, telegraph office Kamloops, 15 miles, in north Yale district.

CHILLIWACK.151 From the 1905 Henderson's Gazetteer and Directory for 1905
(See also Sumas, Sardis, Cheam and Rosedale)
A municipality on the south bank of the Fraser River 50 miles from New Westminster, in the electoral district of New Westminster. Chilliwack, the chief town, is situated in the centre of the municipality and 1 mile from the steamboat landing. Has money order post office with savings bank, telegraph office and telephone connection. St. Thomas Episcopal, Methodist, Presbyterian and Baptist churches. Weekly newspaper. Nearest railway station Harrison River distance 5 miles. The Chilliwack Valley is about 20 miles long and about 10 miles wide and is one of the richest agricultural areas of the province.
Population of the town - 1902 - 600. Of the municipality - 3000.

From R. E. Gosnell's 1901 Year Book (http://collections.ic.gc.ca/digitalyearbook/index.html)
Chilliwack is a thriving little town situated in the centre of the famous Fraser Valley, and on the banks of the Fraser River; is fifty miles east of New Westminster, and about thirty miles west of Hope. The Fraser Valley is about twenty-two miles long and eight miles wide. Chilliwack is distinctly a farming community, and all kinds of fruits, cereals and farm produce grow abundantly. It is also noted for stock raising. A great many of the best and most successful farmers and fruit-growers of British Columbia have large, well-cleared farms and comfortable houses here. Fish and game abound, and it is a desirable resort for summer tourists.
Our roads are in first-class shape, and are generally admitted by bicyclists to be the best in the Province.
Chilliwack is a progressive, growing town, with a population of about 500 souls, and contains a number of enterprises.

See http://chilliwack.museum.bc.ca/history/cov/chilliwack.htm)

(From the Chilliwack Progress, September 14, 21, 28 and October 5, 1904)
The Chilliwack Exhibition in the early years of the 20th century was a three day event of some substance in the Fraser Valley. In 1904, the year George Edwards spent considerable time in Chilliwack and the surrounding area, both before and after the Mission Junction robbery, the Exhibition was held on September 21, 22 and 23rd, Wednesday to Friday. The Provincial Government, in an effort to reduce expenditures and rectify the dire state of the provincial finances, reduced the appropriations to all the agricultural fairs in the province. Chilliwack saw it's grant reduced from $850 to $248, and the Chilliwack Progress, in an editorial, ensured the local population was aware of the fact. As well, they noted that due to the past year's drought, the root crop would not be up to previous standards.
The Exhibition Society called upon local residents to throw open their houses to the expected influx of visitors. The Chilliwack Progress notified all school children to be ready for the parade to take place on Thursday. The best musical talent in B.C. was ready to perform at the local Henderson Hall on Wednesday and Thursday evenings. Horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, poultry and other animals were entered, as well as grain and vegetable crops and horticultural and floral displays and the domestic arts. School displays, horse and harness racing, athletic sports and football games added to the festive atmosphere.
The steamer Ramona made special trips to New Westminster each day to pick up passengers to attend the fair.
Later in the first week of October, Chilliwack residents who attended the Victoria Exhibition commented that Chilliwack's far outshone that of the provincial capital's.

While no record exists that George Edwards or any of his compatriots in the Mission Robbery attended the exhibition, we do know from a witness statement that a man resembling one of the robbers was supposedly in Chilliwack the day after the robbery, and checked in to the Commercial Hotel under an alias. The hotel proprietor noted that the robber had a number of gold nuggets on his person at the time. We know also that Edwards and Budd were in the same area at the time, so it is no stretch of the imagination to assume that they attended some of the Exhibition events, particularly the horse races. Also, C.P.R. detectives were busy monitoring the activities of suspicious characters around Chilliwack at the time, and Missouri Bill in particular stuck close to Edwards while he played poker and shot pool in the town.

Vancouver World, 10 Aug 07, p1.
After Miner escaped from the B.C. Pen, the World commented that he had many friends in the Chilliwack area, He was described as well known and well-thought of by a number of people.

CHILLIWACK LANDING.151 Chilliwack Landing. (See http://chilliwack.museum.bc.ca/history/cov/chilliwack.htm)

CHILLIWACK PROGRESS. The Chilliwack Progress was a weekly newspaper when it was published between 1904 and 1906. It handled mostly local news, and commented on other non-local events when it had a local interest.

After the Mission Junction holdup in September of 1904, only two inches of column on the front page was devoted to this story. However, the issues directly after this holdup are valuable to refer to as they feature the advertisements of a number of witnesses questioned in May 1906 about the aftermath of the Mission Junction robbery in Chilliwack. The issues also give copious coverage to the Chilliwack Exhibition referred to by J. E. Stevenson, who travelled down from Princeton to attend it, and followed the tracks of Miner and Budd on the way along the Hope Trail. Stevenson was a few (3?) days behind them.

The "Local and Personal" columns also proved valuable as they gave an idea of daily life in the village at the time, as well as the fact that detectives investigating the robbery were in town and staying at Harrison House.

After the May 8 Ducks robbery in 1906, the Progress commented on the fact that Miner, as George Edwards, had spent considerable time in Chilliwack subsequent to the Mission Junction robbery. He stayed six weeks in the Dominion Hotel in Dec 1904 and early Jan 1905.

Thiel operative #38 interviewed Mr Stevenson 25 May 1906. Stevenson said he knew Billy Dunn and had camped with him for about two days near Princeton around the first of September in 1904. At that time he also knew George Edwards while in the Similkameen country, and talked about his trip to Chilliwack. He stated "But as I was getting started, I heard that Edwards and Budd had gone over. (This probably refers to the fact that Edwards and Budd had 'gone over' the pass to Hope.) And I saw their tracks when I came across. This was along about the middle of September, 1904, and Edwards and Budd were a few days ahead of me. I got in to Chilliwack on the third day before the exposition opened in 1904. (The exposition referred to opened on Sept 21, 1904, and continued on the 22nd and 23rd. Stevenson therefore arrived in Chilliwack on the 18th.) I saw Edwards with an automatic Colt's gun. He always had plenty of money to pay his way. I saw Missouri Bill around town, but I do not know who he was.

After Miner's escape from the B.C. Pen in August of 1907, the Progress makes no comment on the event.

CHINESE IN B.C.152,153,154 In the Vancouver World of 21 May 06, p1, is an article commenting on the fact that the "anti-Mongolian legislation of the Laurier government has been in the interests of labour". The front page article goes on to note that the initiated tariff against Chinese and Japanese immigrants has had a positive effect on the employment of "suitable white labour."  "Every Chinaman eliminated means the employment of a white man and the addition of another white family in the population." All the lumber mills in B.C. were now in short supply of skilled labour.

Gillian Creese in her essay Exclusion or Solidarity? Vancouver Workers Confront the "Oriental Problem," Canadian Working Class History, 2000, gives a good background to the influence of the unions (Vancouver Trades and Labour Council, Industrial Workers of the World, the Tailors Union, the Cooks and Waiters Union, Hotel and Restaurant Employees Union and the Typographical Union) at the turn of the 20th Century on restriction of Asian immigration to B.C. (p296, 297) The unions wanted restrictions on immigration not only for elimination of cheaper labour competition, but also on racial grounds. (p298) These exclusionary tactics were not the sole tool of the labouring class, but also of political parties. The Socialist Party of Canada supported legislation discriminating against Asians in the workplace as well as curbing further immigration. (p301)

The Colonial Hotel was Bill Miner's favourite place to stay while he was in Kamloops. He stayed there numerous times, and found it the best hotel in Kamloops. Perhaps he chose it because of its advertised policy towards Orientals.

Kamloops Inland Sentinel advertisement, 20 Sept 1904
Colonial Hotel
Lavery, Prop.
Increased accommodation for guests. Refitted and renovated throughout.
Excellent Cuisine. White Cook
Bar supplied with the best liquors and cigars.
Main Street, Kamloops.

The Kamloops Inland Sentinel of Friday the 13th of January 1905 ran the following advertisement.
"Business Locals"
"Patronize union white labour by leaving your laundry at
Dunc Brown's, agent for Cascade Laundry in Vancouver."

William "Smoky" CHISHOLM20,155,156,157,158,159,160,161,162,163,164,165 was living about 1906 in Aspen Grove, B.C.

On 9 January 2006 the writer had a telephone conversation with Janelle Cecceco of Princeton. She says she remembers seeing a building at the location of Mannings when she was a little girl fishing with her parents. It was called Manning's Crossing, right by Manning Creek.

Maizie Armytage-Moore
writes, "Then there was Smoky Chisholm, that little dark crippled gunman, the son of a Presbyterian minister in Nova Scotia; he was a whole story in himself. He used to let me ride his cayoose, "Mowich" (Deer in Chinook jargon), a chestnut streak of lightning." Maizie described Chisholm as crippled due to the limp caused by Brooks' gunshot wound to the leg.

Similkameen Star, Sat. 9 April 1904, p1
Some Gunplay
Smoky Chisholm Shot By Steve Brooks in Drunken Brawl
A shooting affray at a wayside tavern run by Billy Manning on the Nicola Road last Saturday was the result of a prolonged spree by a coterie of individuals well known for their fine drinking qualities. The principals in the affair were Smoky Chisholm and Steve Brooks. Chisholm flashed a six shooter towards Brooks who tried to evade him but he persisted in his threatening manner. Brooks, in sheer desperation and fear, seized a nearby Winchester, and pulled on his man with perilous effect, the bullet penetrating the groin of his leg. Brooks gave himself up to the authorities and will have a preliminary hearing at Nicola Lake. Smoky will now have opportunity to smoke the pipe of peace and chew the cud of reflection if not of repentance. While Brooks is almost sure to get short rations and no grog for a term, (balance of article not on tape.)

(Looked for issues of the Star for the time around the October 1904 assizes in Kamloops, when Brooks was tried, but these issues are not available at the Legislative Library.)

Kamloops Semi-Weekly Inland Sentinel, p4.
Friday 8 April 1904.
"Shooting Affray"
"Smoky Chisholm Shot At Manning's on Princeton Road"
"A man named Brooks is held in custody at Nicola Lake charged with shooting another man and his preliminary hearing will take place next week on the arrival in Nicola of some important witnesses.
So far as can be learned at present the shooting took place at Manning's, about 50 miles from Nicola, on the Princeton road about 4 miles below Thynne's, on April 1. The wounded man, known throughout the district by the soubriquet of Smoky Chisholm, does not enjoy a very enviable reputation and is said to be notorious for always looking out for trouble; a species of "bad" man. He habitually carries a revolver, and is prone to threaten to shoot should anyone cross his path.
It is alleged that Brooks had come under his displeasure and the result of the trouble that ensued was that, in self defense, Brooks shot Smoky.
Brooks was promptly arrested and taken to Nicola, Dr. Tuthill being sent out to attend the wounded man. The extent of the injury sustained cannot be ascertained until the Doctor's return, however, that a flesh wound in the leg covers the damage.
Public feeling throughout the district is decidedly in favour of the prisoner, very little sympathy being extended to the injured man. It is stated that Chisholm is not anxious to prosecute and would rather prefer crossing the boundary line into Uncle Sam's territory."

Kamloops Standard, 30 April 1904
"Wentworth W. Wood, J. P., left for Nicola Lake yesterday afternoon to hold the preliminary hearing in the "Smoky" Chisholm shooting case. The man Brooks, who is charged with the shooting of the Similkameen "bad man" gave himself up to the authorities and will face the music for his action. A. D. Mcintyre, who has been retained by the prosecution, (defense? See next below.) accompanied Mr. Wood."

Kamloops Standard, 7 May 1904.
"A. D. Mcintyre returned on Wednesday night from Nicola Lake where he appeared for the defense in the shooting scrape that put "Smoky" Chisholm out of business for a time. Chisholm has not yet been able to appear against Brooks but the latter was nevertheless committed for trial by Magistrate Gillie and Murray."

Kamloops Inland Sentinel, 10 May 1904, 1.
The Assizes.
"In Rex vs Theriaut and Rex vs Brooks, both adjourned for the next assizes. (fall) A. D. Mcintyre yesterday applied for and succeeded in securing the release of his clients on bail. That of Brooks, the defendant in the Chisholm shooting affair, was fixed at a moderate amount. His Lordship, commenting in strong terms on the unsavoury character of Chisholm condemning the reprehensible practice of men of his stamp carrying deadly weapons at all times and seasons."

Kamloops Standard, 27 Aug 1904

"'Smoky' Chisholm, a well-known prospector of the Similkameen and Nicola Districts, who was shot in the leg some months ago, is able to be on the streets with the aid of crutches. He still makes the hospital his home, but is rapidly progressing towards complete recovery."

Kamloops Standard, 10 Sept 1904
"William Chisholm, a well known Similkameen prospector, who has been at the Royal Inland Hospital, suffering from a fractured leg, the result of a bullet wound received some months back, is able to be on the streets again. Through the medium of the press he desires publicly to acknowledge the skillful treatment and kindness he received at the hands of both the medical and nursing staff of the hospital."

Kamloops Inland Sentinel, Friday 7 Oct 04, p1
(The Fall assizes started in Kamloops on Thursday October 6th. The following is a verbatim transcript of the newspaper report of Friday 7th.)
"When Rex vs Brooks was called, Mr Macintyre (sp) for the defence asked for an adjournment until Friday morning as his client, out on bail, was under the doctor's care, but would be able to appear in the morning. This was agreed to, his lordship fixing the trial for 10 o'clock in the morning."
(Reporting on the Friday morning commencement of the trial continues.)
"The case of Rex vs Brooks was then taken up, A.D. Mcintyre (sp) appearing for the defence, Hon. F.J. Fulton conducting the case for the crown. The crown witnesses occupied all morning, the principal one being William, otherwise known as "Smoky" Chisholm, the man who was shot at the hands of Brooks. The defence does not attempt to deny the shooting but apparently relies on the self-defence theory. The case is still in progress on going to press, several witnesses for the defence being called. The whole affair seems to have arisen out of a drunken brawl in which none of the participants figure to any advantage."
"City and Country"
"Hugh Hunter, mining recorder at Granite Creek, is in town, a witness at the assize in the Chisholm case."
(Hunter was undoubtedly residing in Princeton at this time, and was a constable with the B.C. Provincial Police. He could still have been the mining recorder for Granite Creek.)
""Judge" Murphy, of Princeton, is in town regaling his friends with tales of the hills, and incidentally attending the assizes as a witness."
(Who is Judge Murphy? Was he at the Chisholm-Brooks shooting at Mannings?)

Kamloops Standard, 8 Oct 1904, 1.
The Fall Assizes (Court of Assizes) in Kamloops opened under Mr. Justice Buff (?sp).
"In Rex vs. Brooks the accused was charged with wounding with intent and after a lengthy hearing the case which arose from a drunken brawl fell through and Brooks was dismissed."
(That same day, Hugh Hunter, mining recorder and constable from Princeton, was in Kamloops. Was this just a coincidence, or was Hunter attending the Brooks/Chisholm trial? The Sentinel's article makes it clear that Hunter was attending the trial as a witness. He probably played a role in arresting Brooks, and escorting him to Nicola after the shooting.)
(This was the Smoky Chisholm trial that Bill Miner as George Edwards was at in Kamloops. )

Kamloops Inland Sentinel, Tuesday 11 Oct 1904, p1.
"Brooks acquitted"
"The Jury Brings In a Verdict of Not Guilty"
"The assizes closed late on Friday night, the rendering of the verdict in the case against Brooks ending the criminal docket. The witnesses for the defence called in the afternoon included J. Thynne and others who were originally witnesses for the crown in the preliminary hearing, a tack, Mr. Mcintyre, (sp) counsel for the defence, did not fail to emphasize. The main points sought to be established by the defence were the general good character of the ac cussed and the less reputable one borne by the crown's chief witness, the injured man Chisholm."
"The addresses to the jury were not lengthy, but his Lordship took an hour and ten minutes to carefully present an impartial summary of the case, the inclination being slightly against the prisoner. After being out nearly two hours the jury brought in a verdict of not guilty and Brooks was immediately discharged."

B.C. AG Correspondence, Letters Inward, 1902 to 1937
Reel B2051
Report from the general assizes held in Kamloops, 6 Oct 1904
Supreme Court of B.C.
Steven Brooks
Indictment - “Wounding with intent to do grievous bodily harm”
Findings of the Grand Jury - True Bill
Plea - Not Guilty
Verdict - Not Guilty

B.C. AG Correspondence, Letters Inward, 1902 to 1937
Microfilm Reel B2051
18 Oct 1904, Victoria
From Frederick Fulton in Kamloops to Hon. Charles Wilson, AG.
Dear Sir
I beg to submit the following report on the Kamloops assizes at which you requested I take briefs for the Crown, ... .
Rex vs Brooks.
In this case the charge was of shooting with intent to do grievous bodily harm, the prisoner was not well enough to attend on the first day of the assizes, and the case was adjourned until 10:00 am on the Friday the 7th instance. The trial lasted all day, the Judge summing up about 8:00 pm and the jury retiring at 9 or 9:15 pm. The ground relied on by the defense was that the prisoner had done the shooting because he was in fear of his life from the wounded man Chisholm, who seemed to have borne a very bad character throughout the district. The Jury were out about 1 ½ hours and finally returned a verdict of Not Guilty.
These were the only two cases at the assizes.
Yours faithfully
Frederick J. Fulton.

On 18 May 1906, C.P.R. Detective Bullock made a series of interviews in the Kamloops area. He interviewed Angus McKay and McKay went on to tell Bullick that Edwards was in Kamloops this February past "with a $300 race horse and had lots of money." He was also in Kamloops a year ago last fall at the Smoky Chisholm trial, and about a year ago attended a mining trial in Kamloops related to the Princeton area.
Bullick noted that according to his investigations, Edwards had been in Kamloops at least nine times; staying at the Colonial Hotel. This was confirmed by Bullick interviewing A. LaPoint, the proprietor of the Colonial Hotel. (Bullick, R.E. C.P.R. Special Service Detective, "Witness Statements of Brothers Evander and William McLeod, A Duck, McKay, etc." Report to C.P.R. Sup't Kilpatrick, Revelstoke, B.C., 18 May 1906)

From DO Vicars "Unfinished Narrative," p8.
(After the Ducks robbers were captured, they spent their first night in a hall under guard at Quilchena. A number of sources mention that locals were attempting to free the prisoners.)
There is now a man working for Gerard Guichon, W.A. Jackson, who was then working on the Triangle Ranch, who happened to have walked to Quilchena for supper. There were no extra strangers but one Smoky Chisholm who happened to be very interested in Bill Miner. (or the George Edwards who was under guard in the hall.) He was drinking and bragging. He passed a remark if he had a bunch of firecrackers he could take the boys away from those Mounties. He did try to get to the hall, but the guard turned him down. Chisholm went back to the hotel, braced himself with more whiskey, and made another attempt to get into the hall. The guard said to him, "You have asked twice, ask again and I will let you in, but you will not come out." That killed the attempt to liberate the prisoners by the boys at the old Quilchena Hotel.

James H. CHRISTIE.32,166,167,168 The first instance of Christie occurring in my research occurs in the B.C. Provincial Police files of Constable Basil Gardom.

During B.C. Provincial Police Constable Gardom's investigation after the Ducks robbery, Christie was apprehended and arrested by Gardom near Round Lake, just south of Falkland. Just why Gardom arrested Christie on being an accomplice to the robbery is not known. It can only be surmised that Christie was in the wrong place at the wrong time, did not have a credible explanation for his movements and may have resembled one of the descriptions of the robbers that had been wired throughout the southern interior of the province.

The following is from Constable Gardom's official B.C. Provincial Police report to Hussey in Victoria, and only includes those sections referring to Christie.
(Gardom, B.C. Provincial Police Constable Basil, Report on "Investigative activities between Falkland and Grand Prairie after the Ducks Robbery" (9 May 1906 to 14 May 1906), B.C. Archives, GR0055, Box 54, Files Goa - GN, Goa - Gz and Fos -.)

On May 9th, Gardom, during his Ducks robbery investigation, called at Mrs. Stinson's (Steenson) house on the Grande Prairie side of the first bridge (south of Falkland). In the course of conversation, he mentions a "Christie", and a Mrs. Volrath, who was at the Stinson place, said "Mr. Christie went away over the mountain at the back of my house". (Gardom notes that this house is just above Moffat Creek near Salmon River bridge) "just a week ago - I know because he had dinner with us - he had a rifle and a revolver." Mrs. Volrath went on to tell Gardom that her neighbour "McEwan" was a friend of Christie's and that he lived alone up on the mountain near her place - she could not say whether he had been at home lately - Mrs. Stinson then broke in to the conversation to say that McEwan had bought milk from her but she had not seen him since Tuesday the 8th of May.
Gardom then returned to Vernon.

(On May 10th) Gardom met Special Constable Cotton (from Grande Prairie), and they headed together for Siwash Creek on the west side of Okanagan Lake. Upon leaving the east Salmon River bridge, it started to get dark, and they saw a light on the opposite side of the second lake (Round Lake?) Indian Scotty was also with them. They rode towards the light of the fire, ... .
Gardom and his two partners ... went through the brush towards the light. It was very dark and the brush very thick. It was about 8:30 pm. Within 100 yards of the camp, a dog started to bark. Gardom ran forward to a few yards of the fire and held a rifle on the lone man who jumped up with a rifle in his hands. Gardom yelled that they were the B.C. Provincial Police and to throw up his hands. Soon Gardom saw it was "Christie" and lowered his rifle and walked right up to him. Gardom advised he was looking for the train robbers, and Christie explained that at first he thought Gardom was a cow, then a bear. The two chatted for a few moments, and Gardom noticed Christie was wearing brown pants, a jersey and hob nailed boots were laying nearby.
Christie did not appear to Gardom to be interested in the holdup, and suggested an easier route for Gardom to follow that would get him out of the thick brush and emerge near "Wilson's" camp. Christie asked for a description of the robbers as Gardom was leaving.

On 11th of May, Gardom arrested Christie and lodged him in the jail in Vernon.

The Van. World of 12 May 1906 reports on the capture and arrest of James Moir, W. Wilson and James Christie.
By the May 14th issue of the World, Christie is described as "the leader of the bandits".

In the Vancouver Daily News Advertiser of 18 May 06, it reports that Christie, Wilson and Moir (sic) had apparently been moved from Vernon to Kamloops since their initial arrest on May 12th. On May 18th, the three suspects were released, probably due to lack of evidence.

Enderby Progress, 18 May 1906, p4
McQuarrie made a trip to Vernon to see the prisoners Basil Gardom had arrested and put in the jail in Vernon. On his way back he spoke to a reporter for the local paper in Enderby. He noted that Christie was not the man who had come into the mail car (Miner), but his description was similar to the man who met the robbers at the location of the holdup.(Stevens?) McQuarrie commented that the robbers were visibly upset when they found they had left the express car with a substantial amount of money or bullion behind.

Armstrong Advance, Fri. 25 May 1906.
"James Christie was in town this week, having been freed of suspicion as having been connected with the train robbery. The following taken from a Rossland dispatch conveys an idea of Christie's past life:"
"Christie has resided in and about Rossland for the past 10 years, being a rancher, prospector and timber cruiser and has coal, timber and mineral interests in different sections of the province. Twenty-five years ago he was a scout in the Northwest Territories and has always been a typical frontiersman and knows the remote portions of the continent perhaps as well as any man. In 1889 he, in company with several others, explored the Olympic Mountains in the interests of the Seattle press, and he and the party with him, were the first men, white or red, to explore the wild vastness of that range. He was one of a party that climbed Mount Elias in Alaska. In his wanderings he has visited the Peace River country and has been as far north in Canada as where the surf of the cold Atlantic (sic) beats against the northern shores. It is thought here by men who have known him for two decades and who have never known him to commit a dishonest or unlawful act that the police have made a mistake in arresting him."

(Hand written Christie letter.)
Box 45, File 1
Glen Emma Post Office, Armstrong, B.C.
26 June 1906
To Superintendent Hussey,
Dear Sir,
Would you kindly furnish me with a copy of any report made to you by any party which led up to or was the cause of my arrest as a suspected person in connection with the late train robbery near Kamloops. Also a copy of the report made to your department by any person connected with my arrest, the person actually responsible for the arrest and any reasons given for same or should this letter of inquiry be sent to any other department? Kindly advise.
Yours Truly,
J.H. Christie, lately under arrest at Vernon, B.C.

Box 45, File 1
Chief Constable's Office, Vernon, B.C.
15 Aug 1906
To J.H. Christie, Glen Emma
I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 6th. If Mr. Hussey, my Superintendent, or the Honourable the Attorney General, wish to know on what grounds the order was given for your arrest, I should be pleased to furnish them with the information. Regarding the public statements I am supposed to have made, I can only say that I can not hold myself responsible for anything the public may say.
E.C. Simmons, Chief Constable

(Christie made a handwritten copy of Simmons' letter to him, and enclosed it with his letter to Hussey.)
Box 45, File 1
Glen Emma Post Office, Armstrong, B.C.
21 Aug 1906
To Hussey,
Dear Sir,
In accordance with your position I have written the Chief Constable here in Vernon, E.C. Simmons, re my arrest. In his first communication he simply informed me that I was arrested by his order. I requested him to give me reason or cause for same. I enclose you a copy of his answer. I would infer from the Constable's answer that he has not given, as is expected, to give a report to your office or that of the Attorney General's office regarding the unwarrantable arrest. It is surely not possible that any such authority is held as given to any mere (???) policeman in B.C. Kindly advise me if such is the case. Would you kindly demand from Mr. Simmons a report upon giving his whole reasons on cause of reasonable suspicion for his order for my late arrest.
Remaining yours respectfully,
J.H. Christie

Box 54, File 2. Gaq - Gn
28 Aug 06
From Basil Gardom, at Chief Constable's office in Vernon
To Hussey.
Dear Sir,
Re Train Robbery. Mt. Simmons has instructed me to acknowledge receipt of your letter to him of Aug 25th making inquiries as to arrest of J. H. Christie and he wishes me to say that he will get you full particulars on his return this office next week. I arrested this man but I am unable to give a detailed report until I have seen my notes on the matter which are at Enderby.
The honour to be Sir,
Your Obedient Servant,
Basil Gardom,
Provincial Constable.

Box 45, File 1
Hand written letter to Hussey from Glen Emma, B.C.
Glen Emma Post Office, Armstrong, B.C.
17 Sept 1906
My absence in the mountains for the last three weeks account for my not acknowledging ours of the 25th of August sooner. This I found awaiting me here on return and desire to thank you for your prompt consideration of my request. I look forward to reading the copy of Mr. Simmon's report with some pardonable curiosity.
Remaining Yours Truly,
J.H. Christie

Considerable information on Christie is available in the 54th report of the Okanagan Historical Society, "Letters and Diaries," p77.
Christie's article, introduced by Robert de Pfyffer, deals with conditions on the Okanagan Indian Reserve. He was born in Speyside, Scotland in 1852, and immigrated to Canada as a teenager. He joined the Canadian Artillery, B Battery in Quebec and by 1870 he was in command of a gun crew at Fort Garry. In 1876 he joined the Northwest Mounted Police, and was one of the police who met with Sitting Bull after the battle of the Little Big Horn. After a series of adventures in the North West Territories of Canada and the North West United States, he pre-empted two parcels of land on the west side of the Shuswap River, at the south end of Mabel Lake. By 1905 he had discovered coal near Shorts Creek, close to Fintry. In 1907 he moved to Clint Hill, four miles east of Armstrong. There he was joined by Amelia Diteau, whose mother was an Okanagan Indian. They had a son named Lloyd George Christie. It was from there that he would pen his telegrams and Declarations to the Department of Indian Affairs in Ottawa.

Stanislaus CHUALMA169 was suspected in the killing of Michel LeCamp.  He was also known as Temista Chulma. He was the alleged killer of the tracker Michel Le Camp.

Charged with murder of Michelle Lecamp. (sic)
"Of the three Indians who were most intimately associated with him on the last night, two are under arrest, one having been arrested at Salmon Arm, and the other at Vernon. Temista Chulma, the Indian arrested at Vernon, had a quarrel with Lakemp (sic) that night over money matters and it is known that they engaged in conflict."
Maclean, Deputy Attorney General, Letter to B.C. Provincial Police Supt. Hussey, "Preliminary Hearing of Stanilaus Chualma" (Victoria B.C., 9 Jun 1909)

In 1906 Inspector Frank CHURCH170 was a Mounted Police officer in Regina, SK. Church headed the detachment of R.N.W.M.P. to Penticton to intercept the robbers before they got across the American border.
"Two days after the original Mounted Police party left Calgary for Kamloops, a second detachment of nine under Inspector Church of Regina left for Penticton to attempt to head off the bandits in case they were heading for the US border, but upon arrival they learned that the trio had been captured."

In 1903 CLARK142 (first name unknown) was a rancher.

Okanagan Historical Society #48
Apparently Miner stayed at the Pembroke Ranch with a Clark. Neither the ranch nor Clark have been identified by the writer.  This could be the origin for all the reports I have come across for Miner being familiar with and in the Duck Range area.

Prisoner John W. CLARK13,134,171,172 took part in the escape of Miner from the B.C. Pen 7 Aug 1907. He was an ex-policeman sentenced to 3 years for bad cheques. (Grey Fox)

The New Westminster Daily Columbian of 9 Aug 1907, states that J. W. Clark had been sentenced to three years for passing bogus cheques in Nanaimo. He had served eight months of his sentence when he, along with Bill Miner and two others, escaped from the B.C. Pen 8 Aug 1907. Clark was described as about 5 foot 10 inches in height, of slight build, with fair hair and complexion. All the escapees were working in the brickyard at the time.

New Westminster Daily Columbian 12 Aug 1907, p1
On the night of the 11th, Clark, in the company of Woods, was reportedly spotted on Lulu island. Immediately Bourke dispatched a motor launch from Steveston to the area The three guards on the launch joined five more that already were on the island.

In the Tony Martin Collection, Edwards Correspondence file, there is a letter from Montana.
The letter is dated the 14 Sept 1907, and is to the Warden of the B.C. Pen. Bourke would have handled it at that time. From the Office of the Chief of Police, Metropolitan Police Department, Butte, Montana, it requests that photos of Miner and Clark be forwarded to them as they think that "probably Miner and Clark Turned that Trick on the Gr. Northern & they may have come this way." They have a newspaper photo of Miner but it is a poor one. The letter is signed by one Geo. F. Purlin, Butte, Montana, c/o Police Station.

In May 1906 Walter CLARK31,173 was a B.C. Provincial Police Constable and mail carrier in Nicola, B.C. He described Miner and Budd's horse rustling activities and unsavoury reputations. He provided a witness statement to Detective Seavey.

The 1904 Henderson B.C. Directory notes three Clarks living in Nicola. In 1904, Walter Clark, along with the other two Clarks, was noted as a mail carrier.
Clark, John. Farmer and mail contractor
Clark, Laidlaw. Mail carrier
Clark, Walter. Mail carrier
All these Clarks were probably related.

Box 38, File 8
From Government Agent's office in Ashcroft, 13 May 1905
Letter to Hussey.
(Handwritten from Joseph W Burr,)
(Appointment of Walter Clark in Nicola Lake as provincial constable, and that he will require the following equipment:

1 copy of Provincial Police regulations
1 Provincial Police badge
1 revolver with case and belt, cartridges.
1 rifle and cartridges.
1 baton
1 pair of handcuffs
1 pair of shackles
Send also 25 forms of monthly police reports.)

Box 38, File 8
16 Aug 1905
Burr in Ashcroft to Hussey
(Submits Walter Clark's monthly report and that Clark wants a dark lantern as well, as he finds it very awkward getting along on dark nights without one.)
Burr also requests the following:
1 pair of shackles
1 copy of Criminal Code and amendments
2 copies of Indian Act and amendments, 1 for Spence's Bridge, and 1 for Ashcroft office.

In Det. Seavey's 22 May 1906 letter to C.P.R. Special Service Detective McLaws, Seavey states that he interviewed Walter Clark, a B.C. Provincial Police Constable in Nicola, 15 May 1906. Clark stated "I have seen Edwards at Quilchena, and what I can learn from the outside he is a partner to a man by the name of Jack Budd. They have a ranch in the vicinity of Princeton. Also Edwards has interests in mineral claims with Jack Budd and a man by the name of Alonzo Roberts who lives in the vicinity of Aspen Grove. I have known Jack Budd for about eight years and have seen him off and on for that length of time. There has been quite a few horses stolen from here (Nicola) and Aspen Grove and Jack Budd has been suspected of driving them away to the other side of the line or to the Coast and disposing of them. Jack Budd's height is about 5 ft 9 in weight 160 lbs, small blue eyes, squints with one eye or closes it when speaking light hair and fair moustache. Does not bear the best of a reputation."

Box 38, File 8
Letter, Walter Clark to Joseph Burr, from GA's office in Nicola, 21 Jan 1907
(Regarding complaint lodged against him. He says he has been enforcing the Sunday closing of bar rooms.)

Box 38, File 8
Burr in Ashcroft to Hussey, 24 Jan 1907
(Encloses Const. Clark's letter in reply to complaint laid against him for not enforcing the Sunday Closing Act in all the hotel bar rooms and saloons in Nicola.)

Box 39, File 5
Burr in Ashcroft to Hussey. 10 April 1908
(Encloses monthly reports of the following Constables in his district:)
Const. JW Mullen, Clinton
Const Walter Clark, Merritt
Const. JW Graham, Nicola
Const. AC Minty, Spence's Bridge.
Const. Ego, Lillooet
Const. McGillivray, Lytton
Const. Burr in Ashcroft.

Box 39, File 5
Const. Walter Clark in Merritt to Burr in Ashcroft, 8 July 1908
(Re recent celebrations of 24 May in Merritt there were two Indians drunk and he arrested them and had them tried before J.P. Tuthill on 26 May 1908 at Merritt. Complains about not having a lock up in Merritt. He had Const. Graham of Nicola and two Special Constables in attendance all day. Clark was the Constable in Merritt by this time, and Graham was constable in Nicola. Clark wanted to return to Nicola if possible, as that was where his house and family were.)

Box 39, File 6
From W. Clark in Merritt 8 Jan 1909 to Burr in Ashcroft.
(Tool theft investigation at Granite Creek. One Rabbitt is suspected, but due to depth of snow items could not be found. A Mr. Murphy is the J.P. in Granite Creek. Also mentioned is Constable Hewitt (sic) in Princeton, as is Mr Hunter, the Government Agent in Princeton.)

Thomas Joseph (Tottie) CLEMITSON.


Letter from Margaret (Peggy) Young to writer, 4 Jan 2006, Nanton AB.
Peggy (Young) deRoaldes was a grand daughter to Tottie Clemitson. She and her brother Robert remember hearing that "Miner at some point spent time at or near "The Meadows" south of the family property. He may have just passed through there but rather think perhaps he camped there for a while. Our grandfather (Tottie) knew and liked him. He talked about the distinctive ring of the bell he used on his horse. I remember hearing he was on the posse hunting for the robbers but was glad (when he found out who it was) that he wasn't with the ones that found the robbers. He attended the trial and one time pointed out which person he was in the picture taken in the courtroom (in the far back corner)."

From Unknown. Initials "L.C.", "H." and "G.H.", "Investigative Report Covering Robber Camps", and "Interviews" (Unknown. B.C. Provincial Police Investigation)
In "H's" and "GH's" reports of 18 May 1906, they interviewed a number of residents of the Grande Prairie area. They were investigating the habits of the robbers prior to the robbery on the 8 May 1906.
"F. J. (sic - T.J.) Clemitson, who lives about one mile below H. Guernsey's Store in Grande Prairie said that he had seen Miner and one other ride by at 7:00 AM, heading north, about 3 weeks ago. He could not remember the colour of the horses."

COALMONT.174 Coalmont did not yet exist at the time of the events in this book.

See: http://www.ghosttowns.com/canada/bc/coalmont.html
More extensive information is accessible from the book Blakeburn-From Dust To Dust by Don Blake and published by Skookum Publications, Penticton B.C.

COLONIAL HOTEL, KAMLOOPS.153,175 The Colonial Hotel was Bill Miner's favourite place to stay while he was in Kamloops. He stayed there numerous times, and found it the best hotel in Kamloops.

Inland Sentinel advertisement, 20 Sept 1904
Colonial Hotel
Lavery, Prop.
Increased accommodations for guests. Refitted and renovated throughout.
Excellent Cuisine. White Cook
Bar supplied with the best liquors and cigars.
Main Street, Kamloops.

Inland Sentinel, 4 Oct 1904, p6
City and Country column.
"Adolphe Lapointe is to take over the Colonial Hotel from J.A. Lavery. He will have a 5 year lease with an option to buy." (The property was to be handed over the day the newspaper was published, 4 Oct.)

Going through Sup't F.S. Hussey's files in the B.C. Archives, there are some letters with Colonial Hotel letterhead in the files. Rates are one dollar a day, has good stabling in connection and is the headquarters for miners and prospectors. The Colonial Hotel, R.H. McGinnes Proprietors, Kamloops, B.C.

Outlaw Lewis COLQUHOUN was born on 27 Apr 1877 in Clifford, Minto Twp., Wellington Co., Ontario. In Vol 48 of the Okanagan Historical Society, VB Cawston notes that Colquhoun's body was shipped back to "Collingwood" Ontario for burial. This appears to be incorrect.

Clifford Cemetery
Lewis: born April 27, 1877 Died September 22, 1911. Lot 230 & 250"
(From: Clifford Historical Society)
Sent: Saturday, January 26, 2002 6:52 PM
To: Peter Grauer
Subject: Re: Louis Colquhoun)
He died on 22 Sep 1911 in B.C. Penitentiary, New Westminster, B.C.

Additional information and sources pertinent to this individual are only available in the password protected section of this website. The password is located at the rear of the book, "Interred With Their Bones. Bill Miner in Canada. 1903 to 1907," by Peter Grauer.

In May 1906 Percy COTTON166,192 was a rancher and B.C. Provincial Police special constable in Grande Prairie, B.C. He was part of the Ducks robbery investigation with Const. Gardom of Enderby. He accompanied Constable Gardom to Paul Stevens' place.

Percy Cotton arrived from England and started to work for the Kirkpatrick Ranch. He had been appointed a Special B.C. Provincial Police Constable in Grande Prairie sometime previous to the Ducks robbery. He was apparently only paid for these services when actually engaged in police work. Later, Cotton was to lease the Pylewell Hotel for two years from 1914 to 1916. Cotton ran a substantial farm holding when he leased the Clemes place in Grande Prairie. He was married to Jennie (Martha Jane Kirkpatrick) and had a daughter Dorothy Marguerite. Jennie's sister Marguerite Kirkpatrick married Gerry Talbot who was also interviewed by Constable Gardom. Young, Margaret F., "Quelle Grande Prairie" (Wayside Press, Vernon B.C., 1994)

On 9 May 1906, after his interviews with Frank Gordon, Gerry Talbot and Bertie Butler, B.C. Provincial Police Constable Gardom discussed the situation of the robbery investigation with Cotton in Grande Prairie. Cotton gave him details on one "Mohr". Cotton advised that Mohr came to him at his ranch by the granary that day (May 9th) to buy a horse and a saddle. Mohr had inquired in Grande Prairie as to who was constable in the area, and that was how he had come to Cotton's ranch. Cotton mentioned the robbery to Mohr, and Mohr replied "It will be a case of shooting when they get them". This struck Cotton as peculiar. It was at one o'clock when Mohr told Cotton he was going to Summit Lake and mentioned Paul Stevens. He left Cotton, who did not see him again.

Cotton accompanied Constable Gardom on his investigations around the Grande Prairie area. On the 10th of May he was with Gardom and "Indian Scotty" when they confronted Christie near Round Lake east of Falkland. On the 13th of May he rode with Gardom and a "Smith" to Paul Stevens' place, where they met up with Chief Constable Pearse and Captain Graves. He was to spend a hair-raising night with Gardom in Stevens' cabin, where they were in fear of their lives.

(Handwritten letter)
Box 45, File 1
To the Superintendent of the B.C. Provincial Police (F.S. Hussey) from the Adelphi Post Office, Grande Prairie, B.C.
30 May 1906
Dear Sir,
Should the reward offered for capture of men who held up train #97 on May 9th between Kamloops and Ducks be divided up to any persons other than those who actually made the capture, I hereby send in my claim for share of same as I had been working in trails near their capture. I also helped to arrest Paul Stevens.
Yours faithfully,
Percy C. Cotton.
(Rec'd in the Sup'ts offices 1 June 1906)

Percy Cotton's grand daughter is Helen Morrison, and she lives in Kamloops. Percy and Jenny Cotton had a daughter Dorothy. She married Ted Elliott, and they had Helen. Brian Elliot, married to Sue, and who I know, lives in Westwold and is Helen Morrison's cousin.

COUTLEE.31 1904 Henderson's Directory:
(See also Nicola Lake, Lower Nicola, Quilchena, Rockford and Mamit Lake and Otter Valley)
A money order Post Office on the Nicola Road 8 miles below Nicola Lake. The nearest railway and telegraph office is Spence’s Bridge 42 miles. Telephone to Kamloops and intermediate points. Kamloops distance 60 miles. It is a good agricultural section and is chiefly occupied by cattle ranchers. Good coal mines and silver ledges are located here and are being worked. Mail bi-weekly. This is the point where the road branches to Mamette Lake, Granite Creek and Similkameen Mines and to Voght Valley and Coldwater Valley.
Post Master. H.G.T. Armytage

In 1906 Commissioner CRAIG was a police officer with the R.N.W.M.P.. Acting Sergeant J.J. Wilson received his orders from Craig to proceed to Kamloops. What Craig’s official position with the R.N.W.M.P. was at this time is confusing in the source materials.

Harold (Harry) CREELMAN1,2,3,193 was living in 1904 in Vancouver, B.C.1 In the 1907 VL he is noted as living at 836 Hamilton Street in Vancouver. On 10 Sep 1904 he was a locomotive fireman on the Mission Junction train robbery. He provided valuable eye witness details of the Mission Junction robbery. Harold Creelman was the fireman on the head end of the train stopped at robbed west of Mission in September of 1904. While many newspapers of the day called him Freeman, his real name was Creelman.

In the 1907 B.C. Voter's List, Harvey (sic?) Creelman of 826 Hamilton Street in Vancouver is noted as a Locomotive fireman.

In the Vancouver Province of 12 Sep 1904, Freeman (sic) is noted as showing C.P.R. Special Service Sup't Beasley and his party the highlights of the Mission robbery. This took place after daybreak on the morning of Sunday Sept 11th. In other sources he is noted as having the surname Creelman.

Van. Prov., 27 Nov 1946
A meeting of pioneer railroaders honoured Mission robbery conductor Bill Abbott at a meeting 27 Nov 1946, along with Theo Michell (baggage man), Herb Mitchell (express messenger), Harry Creelman (fireman), and AJ Buckley (brakeman).

In the 11 Sept 1954 issue of the Province, upon the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Mission robbery, it notes that Fireman "Harley" Creelman was living in the Mayfair home for the aged in Vancouver.

William CUBBS in 1906 was a storekeeper in Bostock’s store and hotel in Ducks, B.C. He sold supplies to the Ducks robbers.

Valentine David CURRY18,194 was born on 1 Apr 1864 in Quebec. In 1906 he was a horticulturist in Campbell Creek, B.C.1,194 David Curry appears in the 1901 Census out at Ducks with his wife Marinda, 2 daughters and a son.

Curry had earlier worked for W.J. Roper, and then ran a dairy farm in North Kamloops. He moved to Campbell Creek in 1886, running a market garden and nursery. He became an expert on irrigation, and moved to Vernon in abt 1910.

Spouse: Miranda CARLOW. Valentine David CURRY and Miranda CARLOW were married on 17 May 1890 in Kamloops, B.C.

James DALTON18 had a cabin in the Upper Campbell Creek area. He was the possible owner of the Dalton's cabin mentioned in the police reports. Dalton's cabin may have been used as a temporary camp by the robbers. The only Dalton found that fits resided in Campbell Creek at the taking of the 1901 Census is James Dalton and his wife Mary, with their 3 daughters and two sons.  They lived in a census area that included Todd, Bleeker and Walker, all names preserved in the Barnhartvale, Campbell Range area.

Winnifred M DAVIE.195,196 Winifred was the daughter of the former B.C. Premier the Honourable Alex E? B Davie.
Daphne Fernie relates that her sister Mary and Winifred, unaccompanied, rode their horses to Williams Lake and back in the 1920s. Fetterly also notes that Winifred was a "horsewoman."

Spouse: Attorney General Frederick John FULTON. Attorney General Frederick John FULTON and Winnifred M DAVIE were married in 1909 in Kamloops, B.C.195 Frederick and Winifred had 4 sons, E Davie was the youngest.
Fetterly writes:
The two older brothers, Alec and Jack, were mechanically inclined. The two youngest, Fred and Davie, loved horses.
They (the Fultons) owned a pasture behind St Ann's Academy. Children were: John "Moose" FULTON, Alec FULTON, Frederick FULTON, Edmond Davie FULTON.

Arthur DAVIES198,199,200 was part of the Mission robbery investigation. He watched the Hope Trail with 2 other officers. Provincial Special Constable Wilson, along with city police officer (Vancouver?) Davies and Gault, were sent by rail up to Hope to watch the Hope Trail over Hope Mountain, thinking perhaps that the bandits had made for the Boundary country and by that route attempt to make their escape across the border. The Hope Trail branched off to the mining towns of Granite Creek and Princeton, and Constable Hunter in Princeton had been alerted. Long distance telephones located at Abbotsford and Nicola aided in communications, while the three officers made their way along the trail to Princeton.
Davies happened to be on his holidays at the time.

In the Chilliwak Progress of 21 Sep 1904, in the "Local and Personal" column, it mentions that "Messrs Wilson, Galt (sic) and Davies, private detectives, were in the village registered at the Harrison House last week. They are out searching for the train robbers. They started at Hope and are making their way down towards Vancouver."

The New Westminster Daily Columbian of 15 Sep 1904 also mentions Wilson, Davies and Gault leaving for Hope on the morning of the 14th (Wed.). There they were to "cross the river and work along the trail".

In 1907 Inspector G.W. DAWSON201,202 was an Penitentiary Inspector in Ottawa, ON. George Dawson, working out of Ottawa, was the Inspector of Penitentiaries responsible for heading the inquiry into the escape of Bill Miner from the B.C. Penitentiary. In so doing he generated the enmity of the forcefully retired D.D. Bourke.

New Westminster Columbian (NWCol), Wed 12 June 1907

Dawson arrived Monday from the east on his penitentiary inspection tour. He registered at the Guichon Hotel (the same one Shorty Dunn was to live in after being paroled in 1915) and gave an interview to the Columbian, expressing his satisfaction at the way the B.C. Pen was being run.
Dawson had been Inspector of Penitentiaries for a number of years, and had been coming to the West Coast annually for the past 5 years.
Dawson previously was a Liberal member of parliament, and no doubt got his position as a result of patronage from the Laurier government.

(DlyClmbn, 4 Sep 1907)
Inspector George Dawson was the head of the penitentiary section of the federal Department of Justice. He came to New Westminster in early September 1907 from Ottawa to investigate both the Miner escape and the escape of the two convicts from Wright's Island two weeks later. If it had not been for representations from the C.P.R. and the police of Vancouver and other places in B.C., it seems as though the federal government would have been content if the whole episode were forgotten.

Dawson had completed his annual inspection of the facility not two months before the escape, and supposedly any problems or breaches of security had been cleared up at that time. Bourke maintained that he had complained about security lapses, but was paid no heed.

From the documentation, it appears that Dawson was determined to have at least Bourke's head roll to ensure that reflections on the competency of the service did not go any higher. Dawson assumed that the investigation and inquiry would take no longer than a week, however, he did not finish until December 1907, a full three and a half months after starting. The volume of evidence that he was presented with, the varying statements from convicts and administration, accusations of complicity by penitentiary staff and others in assisting Miner escape, all served to muddy the waters of the inquiry.
In the subsequent debates in the House of Commons, Dawson emerges as either a rather incompetent civil servant, or, as is more likely, one who has skillfully managed to ensure that the penitentiary service, and the department's minister, escape rather unscathed from the whole affair.

In 1906 Superintendent R. B. DEANE was a police officer in Calgary, AB in 1906. He was with the R.N.W.M.P. in Calgary, AB.  He wrote the annual report detailing the capture of the robbers near Douglas Lake. Superintendent Deane was the Commanding Officer of "E" Division in Calgary. He wrote the detailed report for the Commissioner.

George DES KOCHES203 was interviewed by the New Westminster Daily Columbian after the escape of Miner.  He supposedly fed Miner breakfast the Sunday morning three days after the jailbreak.


In the New Westminster Daily Columbian of 14 Aug 07, it reports that farmer George Des Roches, at his place on Nicomen Island, inadvertently fed Miner on the Sunday morning (11th) following the escape, three days after the event. Des Roches had heard nothing of the events at the B.C. Pen, so was not suspicious when Miner slowly walked up to his place, seeming to favour sore feet. Miner asked the farmer if he had seen a stray horse around, and when the farmer replied that he had not, Miner asked whether he might have some breakfast. Miner stuffed himself as if he had not eaten for a great while. Later Des Roches saw a picture of Miner, and identified him as the old man he had served breakfast. B.C. Provincial Police Constable Lane was immediately dispatched to Nicomen Island.

Whether this was in fact Miner remains a mystery. If Miner had been assisted in his escape by others outside the Pen, like Jack Budd, he would have been given a horse, a change of clothes and grub to assist him on his way. It seems likely that he would not have been left to fend for himself, and indications are that he had left the country soon after the escape, probably within the first couple of days. Des Roches' recollections are the same as many generated during manhunts that prove to be erroneous.


DEWDNEY TRAIL.204 The Dewdney Trail that Bill Miner, Jack Budd and their partners would have followed between Princeton and Hope was, in 1904, a trail 6 feet wide with just the middle 2 feet capable of supporting any traffic. It was used by Miner and his friends to drive rustled cattle and horses to Hope, where they would be loaded on C.P.R. steamers and shipped to New Westminster for auction.
The route between Princeton and Hope was much more direct than the present Hope-Princeton Highway. The present highway dips almost to the American border in the south before it turns north west to go over the Allison Pass to Hope. The Dewdney Trail, however, maintained a south west direction from Princeton and went over the height of land in the Cascades and down to meet where the present highway passes the Skagit River and on to Hope.
The first real highway, the Hope-Princeton, was opened on 2 November 1949.

W.A. DEWOLF-SMITH. Dr. W.A. Dewolf-Smith was the prison surgeon at the B.C. Penitentiary when the three train robbers were processed for admittance. He checked the trio over on the 2nd of June 1906 and processed his report on the 4th. In the case of Edwards, he found that he had not been vaccinated, and was free from any "contagious, cutaneous or putrid disease." He was found to be in sound bodily health with the exception that he had volunteered that he had contracted small pox in the past. The results of his examinations of the other two are not known as their files have been sent to Ottawa.

Edna DIGNAN205 was a homesteader living in 1906 in Princeton, B.C. She was the daughter of the Edna Dignan (Verdier) who saw the Jack Budd letters.

Princeton book, Pg 319
"Dignan, William and Edna"
By Edna (Dignan) Slater
"William Joseph Dignan was the son of a pioneer Montana ranch family. He came to Princeton to visit his brother Jack Dignan."
(Met Edna Mary Josephine Verdier and married in 1919. Four girls born to them at ranch at Kreuger Mtn in Boundary country; Frances (Penny), Edna (Billie), Josephine (Jody), and Lorna. Came back to Similkameen country. At Copper Mountain in 1925. In Princeton were born Kathleen (Keme), William (Buddy), Sheila and Patricia. Jim was born in 1931. Three more children born in Princeton; Frances (Frankie), Margaret Anne and the youngest Thomas. Moved to the coast during the 2nd WW.)

Elis. Duckworth's 30 June 1994 article "Another Bill Miner Story."
"Cecil Clark ... was intrigued by the story of the friendship between Miner and Budd. He went to the Provincial Archives to see what information he could find on Jack Budd. Included with a copy of Budd's 1948 Obituary and other papers, was a letter from Millie Huey (nee Schisler) and Edna Dignan (nee Verdier). Mrs. Huey's family had homesteaded on a ranch on Bald Hill just outside Princeton. She remembered when she was a girl that a kindly grey haired Bill Miner paid regular visits to the young family and brought gifts of candy and oranges for the children. He told wonderful stories of the old West."
(Skipped 2 paragraphs.)

"According to Millie Huey, after Jack Budd's death in 1948 the undertaker gave some letters found in Budd's pocket to Mrs. Huey's brother. The letters were written by Miner to Jack Budd and in them Miner revealed that his name was neither Miner nor Edwards. His real name was McDonald and ... Bill Miner was Jack Budd's brother. ... The alleged family connection between Bill Miner and Jack Budd has not been verified." (Duckworth)

On 10 Nov 2001, the writer received a phone call as a result of a request for information from the Princeton Museum. It was a Peg Wikstrom of Kamloops. The Museum in Princeton had contacted her as a result of a letter to them requesting information on "Edna Dignan". Mrs. Wikstrom is now 78 and grew up in Princeton. She went to school with an Edna Dignan, who is now 81 and lives in Chemainus. She was the 2nd eldest of 12 children, her family was quite poor, and her last name is now Slater. This Edna graduated from high school in '39 or '40, and went to Normal School for a year to become a teacher. Her parents and the family moved to Sidney on the island during the 2nd WW. The Edna mentioned in Elisabeth's article is her mother, as she (her mother) was a Verdier.

Edna's mother's name before marriage was Verdier. 2 July 1994

Edna (Dignan) Slater
called me on 13 Jan 2002, returning my call. She was not aware of the letters her mother and Millie (Schisler) Huey had in the B.C. Archives. She is now 81, and living with her daughter and grand daughter in Chemainus, just south of Nanaimo. When she was a little girl she remembers Jack Budd riding his horse in Princeton with his long white hair hanging down. She noted that everyone in Princeton was aware of his relationship with Miner and the other robbers. She invited Karen and I for tea the next time we are down, and said that her home looked out over the sea. She also advised that I should check in Princeton with the offices of the Similkameen Spotlight. She advised that an Art Shenton (deceased) wrote a book of ballads of Miner and his gang and other old timers in Princeton under the title "Similkameen Tales". His daughter now works for the Spotlight in Princeton.

George DILLABOUGH206 maintained he took part in the pursuit of the Ducks robbers.  He was living in 1906 in Kamloops, B.C. He died in 1970 in Kamloops in Royal Inland Hospital at the age of 93. He claimed to be a member of the Ducks Robbery posse. Norm Fetterly told the writer that George Dillabough was a member of the posse that tracked the Ducks robbers. He was a leather tanner and importer of firearms. No record of Mr. Dillabough being involved in any of the Miner epiodes has been found in the writer's research.

DIXIE JUBILEE SINGERS. The Dixie Jubilee Singers played in Kamloops while the trial of the Ducks robbers was being held.
The Williams' Original Dixie Jubilee Singers were regular Chautauqua circuit performers. Managed by Charles P. Williams, this was an exceedingly accomplished seven member black vocal group, three women and four men, that sang everything from opera to ragtime and spirituals. CD's of their music are still available today.

To listen to excerpts of their original music and recordings, go to http://www.venerablemusic.com/catalog/TitleDetails.asp?TitleID=2188

To see a photo, go to

Williams, Clara K.
Johnson, G.L.
Highwarden, Anna. Pianist and vocalist.
Crawford, Pearl M.
Johnson, J.H.
Williams, Charles P.
Williams' Original Dixie Jubilee Singers.

Nelson County, ND, Village of Lakota, Lakota Herald, November 14, 1902. (http://ftp.rootsweb.com/pub/usgenweb/nd/nelson/newspaper/lakher2.txt)
"The first number of this course is due November 29th and is one of the best attractions that will come to Lakota this winter, the Dixie Jubilee Singers. This aggregation is so well known and so generally liked as to need no comments. They never fail to please. The manager of the opera house at Canton, S. D. says: "They met the most enthusiastic reception of the season.
Cheers and curtain calls at every number." The pastor of the Joyce M. E. church at Chicago says: "The audience filled every seat. The singing of the Jubilee Singers was so satisfactory that we expect to have them again. It was the most successful entertainment ever given in our church."

In 1906 William Alexander DODDS36,43,173,207 was a stock raiser, Post Master, and general merchant in Aspen Grove, B.C. He frequently would have Miner and individuals in his gang drop in on their way by his ranch. He provided a witness statement to Det. Seavey. William Alexander Dodds was an original pioneer resident the small mining hamlet.

1898 B.C. Voters List
Dodds, William Alexander, Aspen Grove, Stock-raiser, YN (Yale North)

Maisie Campbell Johnson mentions Dodds in her stories of Bill Miner, as does Constable Hugh Hunter in his investigation report to Sup't Hussey.

In Det. Seavey's 22 May letter to C.P.R. Special Service Detective McLaws, Seavey states that he interviewed William Dodds in Aspen Grove and Dodd provided him with a statement 16 May 1906. Dodds' statement states as follows:
"I have seen the said Edwards in my store several times during the past year who occasionally made small purchases for which he paid cash. I am informed that he came into this section of the country about two years (ago) and that he was in partnership, dealing in horses, with a man by the name of Jack Budd who has been in this section of the country for several years and who with Geo. Edwards has a small horse ranch near Princeton B.C. Also am informed that Geo. Edwards is interested in a mining claim near here with his horse ranch partner Jack Budd and a man named Alonzo B. Roberts who lives at Aspen Grove. George Edwards has been away much of his time since coming here and no one seems to know where he goes to."
"Jack Budd bought dynamite from me several times during the past year and the last he bought from me was on or before Feb. 14th /06 a sample of which I gave to you today marked "WAD May 16th /06". Thursday May 17th 1906 Jack Budd came to my store about noon when the stage arrived. He remained for some time until the neighbours got their mail when he said he guessed he would go back to his claim and went away. (Was Budd waiting for the Ducks robbers to arrive?) Some time after this, accompanied by Jack Murray (of Nicola?) I went to guard a trail to look out for suspicious persons passing that way which was several miles away, we waited for some time and was surprised to see Jack Budd riding along this trail leading an extra horse and for a few days after Budd was seen in the same locality riding his horse and leading the same horse each time. (Was Jack Budd now getting worried about the fate of Miner and the other robbers?)"
"It is common talk by citizens of this locality that George Edwards and Jack Budd are carrying on a suspicious business in handling and dealing with horses."
"It is common practice in this locality for farmers who use large sticks of dynamite for blowing up stumps and for miners who use 7/8 inch dynamite for blasting rock etc. to lend and borrow of each other and return it when a new supply is purchased."
The dynamite was important evidence at the trial of the robbers in Kamloops, as they had left the sack full of dynamite sticks on the rail bed close to Campbell's Crossing some miles west of Ducks (Monte Creek).

G. C. DOLMAN208 was living in Chilliwack, B.C. in 1906. He provided a witness statement on Miner and the Mission robbery He saw Miner in Chilliwak in the fall of 1904.

On 25 May 1906, G.C. (George?) Dolman was interviewed by Thiel Operative #38 in Chilliwak. Dolman picked out George Edwards' photo from an array displayed to him by the detective. "This man used to come over and sit in my barn and talk with me for hours, as he was a lover of horses. I saw a tattoo mark on his arm, I do not remember which one; it was on the back of his forearm. Also a mark on his thumb, running from the root of the nail, towards the first joint of the thumb, which looked like a dotted line. I saw Edwards have a lot of money, a big roll with a $1000 bill on the outside, and a long buckskin sack in which he carried gold, mostly $20 gold pieces. I should say there was more than a pound of it. I have played cards with him, and he would always sit with his back to the wall. He had a very sharp eye, and watched everyone who came in. He wore a ring on the third finger of the left hand, formed like a snake, but with no stones in it. He wore a long fur coat and a large white hat, the same as is shown in the photo. He came here from Ladner's Landing. When he left here Budd was with him, and they had two horses and a red mule. They went to Hope and were to go up over the trail, but came back here three days later, saying that the snow was so deep on the trail they could not get through. But I know that there was no snow up there, and I think they became afraid that somebody was waiting on the trail to take them. And they came back and took a boat down the river, horses and all."

DOMINION EXPRESS COMPANY. The Dominion Express Co. was the actual entity that was robbed in both the Mission Junction and Ducks robberies. The company was a subsidiary of the C.P.R. W.S. Stout was the President and General Manager in June 1906. The head office was in Toronto, ON.

DOMINION SECRET SERVICE. The Dominion Police Force, led by Commissioner and Lt. Col. Sherwood, appears intermittently throughout the story. However, they played no substantive role in our story. They were also referred to as the Dominion Secret Service. Starting off as a police force protecting the parliament buildings in Ottawa, they eventually became the police force of record for eastern portions of Canada. They merged with the R.C.M.P. in 1920.

Box 44, File 1.
A clipping (New Westminster Columbian 12Jan05) enclosed with a letter to Hussey from C.P.R. Inspector McLeod mentions the Dominion Secret Service working with the Pinkertons to solve the Mission Robbery case.

Margaret DONATELLI209 was living in Sep 1904 in Mission City, B.C. She witnessed the Mission train robbery near Silverdale, B.C.


Email from Val Patenaude, Curator, Maple Ridge Museum. 30 Jan 2002.
"Finally, on a personal note, I am a Donatelli on my mother's side and my grandmother was a witness to the robbery at the age of four. She remembered the excitement and her mother pushing the children away from the front window of the house but that was about it. A cousin of mine still owns the old homestead and last year I took a group of students from a local high school on a visit there to recreate the Great Train Robbery at its original location. It was great fun."

On September 16th, 2004, while taking photos of the site of the Mission Robbery on Donatelli Road west of Mission, we met Leo Patterson. Leo was the son of Margaret Donatelli, who was born in 1895, and at the age of 9 or so witnessed the robbery of the C.P.R. train west of Mission Junction by Bill Miner.
The Donatelli and Patterson properties are located on Donatelli Road, a turn off towards the Fraser River from the existing Lougheed Highway, and west of Mission. The writer and his wife Karen took numerous pictures here of the railway, the Donatelli farmhouse (now destroyed) properties and the Donatelli Church. Leo also allowed me to take a photo of the old Donatelli house that he had hanging in his living room.
The actual site of the robbery is slightly west of Silverdale at present (2004) C.P.R. milepost #92. Silverdale is just east of Donatelli Road at McLean Road.
Leo's cousin Tom Donatelli lives across the road from him. The old Donatelli Church is located behind his house, however he wasn't home when Karen and the writer were there. Leo gave us permission to go onto the property and take pictures of the old church and the location of the old house.

DOUGLAS LAKE RANCH.18,31,210,211,212,213 The Douglas Lake Ranch provided employment to both Bill Miner and Jack Budd. Miner was employed sometime between the spring of 1904 and the winter of 1905.

The Canadian Census for 1901 gives us a snapshot of the people who worked there at that time. The Census was taken during the month of April.
Joseph Greaves was noted as the head of the ranching operation. He gives his age as 68, being born in England in 1833. Of all the individuals noted at the ranch at that time, he is the only one that did not divulge his annual income.
Not counting Greaves, it appears that the ranch had 17 employees, 11 of which were of Chinese origin. One of the Chinese was the ranch cook, and the balance are assumed to be irrigation workers, experienced in flood irrigation of the ranch hay fields. Of the five non-Chinese, one was a blacksmith and one was a clerk at the ranch general store. It is assumed that the other four were cowboys and general ranch hands.
The Chinese ranged in age from 29 to 41, and were described as farm hands. The annual wages were 300 dollars per year, and one made $250 per year. The Chinese workers were Ah Sam, Ah Fong, Charlie, Ah Long, Ah Lee, Ah Hoy, Ah Lem, Gee Gong, Ah Mee and Ah Lee. The 30 year old Chinese known merely as Joe was the cook.
The store clerk at $600 per year was 43 year old Robert Beairsto (Bearstowe?) from PEI, and the blacksmith at $600 per year was William Knight, 28, from Ontario. The cowboys were Henry Mass, 20, from the US, George Hoffman, 52, from Ontario, William McDonald, 25, from the US, and Charlie Burns (?), 25, from Ireland. Maas and Hoffman made $300 per year and McDonald and Burns made $250 per year. All the white employees were noted as being Canadian citizens, the Chinese remained Chinese.

Henderson Directory for B.C., 1904.
Douglas Lake
(see also Coutlee, Lower Nicola and Nicola Lake.)
A country post office in the Yale district, 65 miles south of Kamloops, and 20 miles south east of Nicola Lake. Nearest railway station and telegraph office Kamloops district 60 miles mails weekly.
Postmaster. Joseph B Greaves

Beairsto, Robert.
Campbell, Ewen. Rancher
Cattle DL and Co. General Store
Coutle, Joseph. Douglas Lake Cattle Co., ranchers and General Store
JB Greaves Mgr
Fountain, William.
Goodwin, Alfred RG, Stock raiser
Goodwin, Benjamin, Rancher
Goodison, Herbert. Rancher
Greaves, John Blackbourn. Post master
Greaves, Joseph B. Rancher
Lauder, William M. Stock raiser.
Lowe, William. Labourer
McDonnel, Jeremiah. Blacksmith
Greer, Thomas. Rancher
Thomson, John. Rancher
Whitford, James. Labourer
Whitford, John

Henderson Directory for B.C., 1905.
Douglas Lake
Post Master. Joseph B Greaves.
Bearstowe, Robert, Cattle, DL and Co.
Coutlee, Joseph.
Douglas Lake Cattle Co., Ranchers and General Store, JB Greaves, Manager.
Fountain, William.
Goodwin, Alfred RG. Stock raiser
Goodwin, Benjamin. Rancher
Gracey, John. Labourer
Greaves, John Blackbourn, Post Master
Greaves, Joseph B. Rancher
Hazelhurst, Richard. Labourer
Ianson, John. Blacksmith
King, John. Labourer
Lauder, Frederick. Labourer.
Lauder, William M. Stock raiser
Walker, Oliver. Labourer
Wickford, James. Labourer

Okanagan Historical Society Vol 38, 1974
Herbert Heald Thomas was the youngest son of Charles and Alice Thomas. He first came to Princeton in the 1890s. He left Southampton, England, in 1892, and while going past Ducks, B.C. he got off the train to go and visit his brother at Nicola. Bert went to work at the Douglas Lake Ranch where he met Jack Budd, who was also working there. Later he would run into Budd again in Princeton. Budd was a ranch hand at that time at the Douglas Lake Ranch.

Bank of B.C. Pioneer News, 1984, VB Cawston
Cawston quotes Herb Thomas in this article as saying that he first met Jack Budd at the Douglas Lake cattle ranch in 1892, before either of them came to Princeton.

In Campbell Carrol's "Three Bar. The Story of Douglas Lake" (1958), he notes the tie between Jack Budd and A. R. Goodwin who owned the Fish Lake ranch beside the Douglas Lake ranch, then run by J. B. Greaves. (This ranch was later known as the Norfolk Ranch.)

In 1905-1906, Goodwin was charged by J. B. Greaves of the Douglas Lake Ranch with horse stealing. Carroll also notes that Jack Budd was an accomplice of Goodwin's, and that charges were laid against him also. Despite the testimony of a young cowboy employed by Goodwin named Oliver Walker, who testified that he and Goodwin had rounded up 28 of the Douglas Lake Company's purebred mares, the charges were dismissed. Walker also testified that 11 of the Douglas Lake horses had their brands treated to an application of a blistering agent such as lump jaw or spavin cure. This caused the hide to raise and the Douglas Lake brand to come off in three or four days. Walker testified Goodwin said that he intended to ship the animals once they were back in good shape.
While the charges were eventually dismissed, Greaves was no longer plagued with his horses being rustled. (In actual fact, the trial took place in 1907.)

This is the first indication that Budd was involved with Goodwin. However, the probability is high that Budd was indeed partners with Goodwin, as other sources note Budd and Edwards' rustling activities in the Quilchena-Nicola area.

Wooliams' "Cattle Ranch" relates a story of Miner working at the Douglas Lake Ranch, and transporting Chinese irrigation workers by buckboard. The team spooked, and one of the labourers was thrown off and killed. Feelings ran so high against Miner that Greaves advised him to leave the area. A supporting tale was told by Bud Walters' daughter (June Walters Charlton) to Savona resident Chris Green in email to Ken Favrholdt. These two sources are the only ones that relate this anecdote.

In 1907 Instructor James DOYLE134 was a prison administrator in New Westminster, B.C.1  Doyle is noted as living in the "Penitentiary Cottages". He was the senior guard on duty during Miner's escape. Doyle was the yard supervisor at the time of Miner's escape from the B.C. Pen.

New Westminster Columbian 9 Aug 0
Instructor Doyle was on guard duty at the time of the escape, and at the time the Columbian went to press in the afternoon the next day, he was still in pursuit of the escapees.

New Westminster Columbian 12 Aug 1907
Doyle was overseeing sixteen convicts in the brickyard that afternoon. He only exercised general supervision as the men passed out of his sight from time to time, behind the rows of bricks, and in the vicinity in and around the machine shop. The only other guard assisting him was McNeil.

Albert William DUCK18,54,120,136,214,215,216,217,218 was born on 9 Feb 1862 in England. He immigrated in 1883 to Canada. In 1906 he was a rancher in Ducks, B.C.1 The 1906 Voters List also notes Duck as a rancher. He died on 8 Jul 1932 in Kamloops, B.C. He witnessed some of the pre-robbery activities of the Ducks robbers. Jacob Duck, Albert Duck's uncle, came to the Monte Creek (formerly Ducks) area in 1862 with Alex Pringle. They established an excellent and extensive ranch. He pre-empted land on both sides of the river, and together with Pringle, ran a roadhouse. In 1882, Pringle sold out to Duck, and the ranch expanded to 3000 acres. Six years later Jacob sold out the whole property to Hewitt Bostock for $45,000, and returned to England.

Jacob's nephew Albert joined him in Canada in 1883 (1881?), and together they built the Brunswick Hotel. Albert then started ranching at Grande Prairie, and while he was in Grande Prairie, he was manager of the Adelphi Hotel built in 1885. He soon moved to develop the Holmwood ranch, which was previously the Robbins' ranch. It was located between Monte Lake and Barnhartvale, (then called Upper Campbell Creek) and it was a natural stopping place for travellers. Stages changed their horses there at the barn that still stands beside the road today.

In the 1901 Census, we find Albert Duck and his family at the Holmwood Ranch on the Old Vernon Highway, east of Campbell Creek. He and his wife Edith (33) have two daughters, Mona (7) and Doris (5), and two sons, Rupert (3) and Wilfred (2). They have two farm hands working for them on the ranch. A son Arthur was later born at the Holmwood Ranch.

Albert Duck saw Edwards on a roan pinto horse at his house on 29 Apr 1906. It is assumed that he and his wife were on the old Robbins' ranch (Holmwood) when they both saw the robbers before the robbery.

Albert William Duck's witness statement.
I live about 4 miles south of Ducks, almost directly south of Ducks. On Sunday 29th April about 11am I was called downstairs by my wife that a man wanted to see me - I came down stairs. He asked if he could get some supplies - I told him we did not keep a store and asked him what way he had come, he said we came this way and motioned to the East, I told him if that was so he must have come through Grande Prairie and passed the stores. He said they had been in the mountains for some time. He said he wanted tobacco both chewing and smoking, milk, eggs and rice and lard. I gave him one plug T&B smoking tobacco and my wife got him the rest of the stuff. My wife boiled either 2 or 3 doz. eggs. He paid us I think $1.75.
I mentioned the earthquake news to him and he said he had heard nothing of it that he had been in the mountains six weeks. I gave him the Victoria Colonist to read. The oldest prisoner is the man who called this day. He took off his coat and hat and had a wash so that I had a good chance to see his face. He was riding a roan pinto.
May 19th '06
Albert William Duck.
(In Detective McLeod's transcript submitted to McLaws by Seavey, the same information is given, almost verbatim.)

Hussey telegrammed Murray in Victoria to subpoena Mr. and Mrs. Albert Ducks, presently staying at the Dominion Hotel. The Ducks were holidaying during the time that the trial was in progress.
In a telegram dated the same day at 7:58 pm and sent to B.C. Provincial Police Sergeant Murray in Victoria, Hussey advises him to subpoena Mr. and Mrs. Ducks, who are holidaying in Victoria and do not wish to return to Kamloops and testify at the trial of the robbers.

In Deputy Attorney General McLean's closing argument notes, he quotes Albert Duck as being able to identify the man at his ranch as "Edwards, no doubt about it". He also identified the roan pinto horse held "in the yard" in Kamloops as the one Edwards rode.

In a letter to B.C. Provincial Police Sup't Hussey 9 Jun 06, Pearse asks permission to compensate the Ducks for being subpoenaed as witnesses for the trial of the robbers. Mr. and Mrs. Ducks were holidaying in Victoria, and had only just arrived when notice came for them to return to Kamloops. They put in a claim for return fare from Victoria to Kamloops and a sleeper on the train and berth on the boat. This would be the boat taken from Vancouver to Victoria. Pearse recommended that compensation be paid.

Albert was President of the SPCA in 1931.

A direct descendant of Albert and Edith, Ian Duck, son of their son Arthur Duck, resides in Houston, Texas.

Spouse: Edith (Morely) DUCK. Albert William DUCK and Edith (Morely) DUCK were married on 23 Nov 1892 in Kamloops, B.C. Children were: Doris DUCK, Mona DUCK, Rupert DUCK, Wilfred DUCK, Arthur DUCK.

Arthur DUCK. Parents: Albert William DUCK and Edith (Morely) DUCK.

Doris DUCK219 was born on 4 May 1895 in Kamloops, B.C.

Okanagan Historical Society Vol 60, 1996. (by Brenda Thompson).
Doris remembered meeting Bill Miner when he came to Holmwood to buy supplies before the Ducks robbery. She first married a Bertie Butler and lived in Westwold, then after Bertie's death in 1948, she married Ivan Crossley.

Parents: Albert William DUCK and Edith (Morely) DUCK.

Edith (Morely) DUCK54,120,121,220,221,222 sold supplies to Miner before the Ducks robbery. She was a prosecution witness at the Ducks robber's trial. Edith Duck identified George Edwards at the trial as wanting to buy provisions at her ranch.

Vicars manuscript-
"Mrs. Albert Duck had also sold him lard and a dozen boiled eggs, and when she gave her evidence, Miner pulled an egg from his pocket to show her."

In a letter of 22 May 1906 to McLaws of C.P.R. Special Service Dept., W. McLeod of the same Dept. writes,
"Mrs. Ducks claims the old man came into the house and bought 2 bottles milk, 1 doz. eggs, some lard and rice and stated he came in from the mountains and had been in said mountains 6 weeks. Went on to state he had not heard of the San Francisco disaster and he was given some papers to take away with him.
The other two men were outside, one having a pack horse, I am positive they are the three men as per photos shown, my three children also are certain they are the same as these photos.
Mr Russell claims he was coming towards the house on that date 29th and saw the two men making camp a little way from house and the old man was coming down the road with a bottle of milk in each hand. I am certain and will swear they are the same men as photos shown.
Mr Ducks is away from home but he can substantiate my statement."

Mr Russell claims he was coming towards the house on that date 29th and saw the two men making camp a little way from house and the old man was coming down the road with a bottle of milk in each hand. I am certain and will swear they are the same men as photos shown.
Mr Ducks is away from home but he can substantiate my statement."

Detective McLeod's transcribed notes in the documents submitted by Seavey to McLaws in mid-June 1906 seem to be a bit more detailed in some aspects.
"Mrs. Ducks claims that on Sun. 29 April the old man called at her place and wanted to take a wash; and bought 2 bottles of milk, 1 doz. eggs, some lard, tobacco and paid her $1.75. He had a horse tied at the fence while he was in the house, the horse being a spotted bay and white, more bay than white, and having some white in it's face. Also that the two men (Dunn and Colquhoun) passed by, leading a dark coloured horse. She said the old man left the house about 12 o'clock, noon, headed towards Kamloops.
Mr Russell, who works for the Ducks, stated that he was riding with Judge Butler from Kamloops, and passed two men camped at the forks of the road, leading to Ducks Station. about 3/4 of a mile west of Ducks' ranch. And that after passing the ranch a short distance, they met the old man riding a roan or spotted horse, going toward the George Edwards camp, and carrying a bottle of milk in each hand; and that the old man said, "This is not whiskey, boys."

Investigator G.H.'s record of his interview with Edith Duck is substantially the same. "Mrs. Albert Duck of Ducks (sic) says that the old man Edwards call at her place on Sunday April 29th and wanted to take a wash, and bought lard tobacco, rice and two bottles of milk for which he paid her $1.75. He had a horse tied at the fence while he was in the house, there was two men passing by leading a dark horse, the horse that the old man had was a spotted bay and white, more bay than white, some white in face, he left the house about twelve o'clock noon headed towards Kamloops.

In Deputy Attorney General McLean's closing trial arguments, he notes that Mrs. Duck identified all three of the prisoners as the ones who passed by her place on Sunday 29th April. She also confirmed that the old Man (Edwards) was riding a pinto.

Spouse: Albert William DUCK. Albert William DUCK and Edith (Morely) DUCK were married on 23 Nov 1892 in Kamloops, B.C. Children were: Doris DUCK, Mona DUCK, Rupert DUCK, Wilfred DUCK, Arthur DUCK.

Mona DUCK. Parents: Albert William DUCK and Edith (Morely) DUCK.

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